.*NEGRO SPIRITUALS by Thomas Wentworth Higginson (The Atlantic Monthly, June, 1867)



Afro-America Sings. Detroit: Board of Education of the City of Detroit, 1971.

Allen, William Francis, Charles Pickard Ware & Lucy McKim Garrison. Slave Songs of the United States. New York: 

P. Smith , c1867.

Anderson, Walter F.Look Away: 50 Negro Folk Songs. Delaware, OH: Cooperative Recreation Service, Inc. n.d.

Armstrong, M. F. (Mary Frances). Hampton and its students. By two of its teachers, Mrs. M. F. Armstrong and Helen W. Ludlow. With fifty cabin and plantation songs, arranged by Thomas F. Fenner. New York, G. P. Putnam's sons, 1874.

Ballanta-Taylor, Nicholas George Julius. Saint Helena Island Spirituals. New York: G. Schirmer Inc., 1925.

Baptist Hymnal. Nashville: Conventon Press, 1975.

Barton, William E. Old Plantation Hymns. Boston: Lamson, Wolffe & Co., 1899.

Blood-Patterson, Peter. Rise Up Singing. Bethlehem, PA: Sing Out Publication, 1988.

Brown, Lawrence. Negro Folk Songs. London: Schorr; New York: Associated Music Publishers, c1930.

Bryan, Ashley. Walk Together Children: Black American Spirituals. [United States]: Atheneum, c1974.

Bryan, Ashley.All Night All Day: A Child's First Book of African-American Spirituals. New York: Atheneum, c1991.

Burleigh, H. T. Album of Negro Spirituals. Melville, N.Y.: Belwin Mills, c1969.

Burleigh, Harry T. Plantation Melodies Old and New. New York: G. Schirmer, 1901.

Burleigh, Harry T. The Spirituals of Harry T. Burleigh. Melville, N.Y.: Belwin-Mills Publishing Corp., 1984.

Cleveland, J. Jefferson and Verolga Nix. Songs of Zion. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1981.

Courlander, Harold. Negro Folk Music, U.S.A. New York: Columbia University Press, 1963.

Dett, R. Nathaniel. Spirituals. New York: Mills Music, c1964.

Dett, R. Nathaniel. The Dett collection of Negro Spirituals. Chicago: Hall & McCreary Co., c1936.

Dett, R. Nathaniel. Religious Folk-Songs of the Negro as Sung at Hampton Institute. Hampton, VA: Hampton Institute Press, 1927.

Diton, Carl. Thirty-Six South Carolina Spirituals. New York: G. Schirmer Inc., c1928.

Fenner, Thomas P. Cabin and Plantation Songs. New York: G. P. Putnam's sons, 1892.

Fisher. Seventy Negro Spirituals. Boston : O. Ditson Co., c1926.

Fisher, William Arms. Ten Negro Spirituals. Boston: O. Ditson, 1925.

Glass, Paul. Songs and Stories of Afro-Americans. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1971.

Hallowell, Emily. Calhoun Plantation Songs. New York: AMS Press, 1976.

Johnson, Hall. The Green Pastures Spirituals. New York: Carl Fischer, c1930.

Johnson, Hall. Thirty Spirituals Arranged for Voice and Piano. New York: G Schirmer, Inc., 1949.

Johnson, James Weldon. The Second Book of Negro Spirituals. New York: The Viking Press, 1926.

Johnson, James Weldon. The Book of American Negro Spirituals. New York: The Viking Press, 1925.

Johnston, Richard. Folk Songs North America Sings. Toronto: Caveat Music Publishers, Ltd., 1984.

Jubilee Songs: as sung by the Jubilee Singers, of Fisk University, (Nashville, Tenn.) under the auspices of the American Missionary Association. New York, Chicago, Biglow & Main [c1872]

Kennedy, Robert Emmet. Mellows: A Chronicle of Unknown Singers. New York: A. and C. Boni, 1925.

Kennedy, Robert Emmett. More Mellows. New York: Dodd Mead & Company, 1931.

Krehbiel, Henry Edward. Afro-American Folksongs: A Study in Racial and National Music. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company,


Lanstaff, John ed. Climbing Jacob's Ladder: Heroes of the Bible in African- American Spirituals. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1991.

Little, Charles F., Jr. Praise Him With the Gospel. Lexington, KY: C.F.L. Music Publishing Co., 1983. vol. 1

Logan, William Augustus. Road to Heaven: Twenty-eight Negro Spirituals. University of Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1955.

Lomax, John A. and Alan Lomax. Our singing Country: A Second Volume of American Ballads and Folk Songs. New York: Macmillan Company, 1941.

Lovell, John. Black Song: The Forge and The Flame. Paragon House Publisher,1972

Ludlow, Helen Wilhelmina. Tuskegee Normal and Industrial School, for training colored teachers, at Tuskegee, Alabama ... Its story and its songs. Hampton, Va., Normal School Press, 1884.

McIlhenny, E.A. Befo' de War Spirituals. NY: AMS Press, 1973.

NAACP Song Book: Lift Ev'ry Voice. New York: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1972.

Niles, John J. Seven Exhaltations. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc., 1929.

Odum, Howard, and Guy B. Johnson. The Negro and His Song: A Study of Typical Negro Songs in the South. Westport, Connecticut: Negro Universities Press, 1968.

Parrish, Lydia. Slave songs of the Georgia Sea Islands. New York: Creative Age Press, Inc., 1968.

Peters, Erskine. Lyrics of the Afro-American Spiritual. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Religious Folk songs of the Negro as Sung on the Plantations. Arr. by the musical directors of The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. Hampton, VA: The Instutute Press, 1918.

Seward, T.F. Jubilee Songs. New York; Chicago: Biglow & Main, c1872.

Tobit, Janet E. A Book of Negro Songs. Pleasantville, NY, 1950.

White, Clarence Cameron. Forty Negro Spirituals. Philadelphia: Theodore Presser Co., 1927.

Work, Frederick J. New Jubilee Songs as Sung by the Fisk Jubilee Singer. Nashville: Fisk University, 1902.

Work, John W. American Negro Songs and Spirituals. New York: Bonanza Books, 1940.,

John Wesley Work(Editor) American Negro Songs : 230 Folk Songs and Spirituals, Religious and Secular/ Paperback / Published 1998

Work, John W. Folk songs of the American Negro. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969.



U.S. Releases: CDs / cassetts

Amazing Grace - American Hymns & Spirituals / Robert Shaw

Traditiona l(Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1993


An American Heritage Of Spirituals

Mormon Tabernacle Choir / Audio CD / Released 1997


The American Vocalist - Spirituals, 1850-1870 / Cohen

William Billings (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1992


Black Christmas - Spirituals in African-American Tradition

Traditional (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1998


Deep River - H.T. Burleigh: Songs, Spirituals / Moses, et al /Mos es etc

Henry Thacker Burleigh(Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1999


Derek Lee Ragin - Negro Spirituals / Moses Hogan Chorale

Derek Lee Ragin / Audio CD / Released 1999


Dorothy Maynor - Spirituals, Arias, Songs

Traditional (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1995


The Essential Leontyne Price - Spirituals, Hymns, etc

Henry Thacker Burleigh (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1997


Ev'ry Time I Feel the Spirit - Spirituals / Derek Lee Ragin

Traditional (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1993


Give me Jesus - Spirituals / Barbara Hendricks, et al

Traditional (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1999


Great American Spirituals / Battle, Hendricks, Quivar

Traditional (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1992


Jester Hairston - Spirituals / Belmont Chorale, Kelly

Belmont Chorale / Audio CD / Released 1995


Marian Anderson - Spirituals - He's got the whole world...

Marian Anderson / Audio CD / Released 1994


Negro Spirituals / Davis, Hynninen, Ranta

Traditional (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1992


Roland Hayes - Favorite Spirituals

Roland Hayes (Composer), Reginald Boardman (Performer) / Audio CD / Released 1995


Spirituals / Conrad, Hopkins, Convent Avenue Concert Choir

Traditional (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1995


Spirituals / Jessye Norman, Ambrosian Singers

Traditional (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1987


Spirituals / Marian Anderson

Traditional (Composer), Marian Anderson (Performer) / Audio CD / Released 1995


Spirituals / Martina Arroyo, Henri Venanzi

Traditional (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1996


Spirituals in Concert / Kathleen Battle, Jessye Norman

Battle, Norman / Audio CD / Released 1991

Our Price: $14.99 ~ You Save: $1.98


Trav'ling Home - American Spirituals 1770-1870 / Joel Cohen

Traditional (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1996


Wilhelmina Fernandez Sings Favorite Spirituals / Darden

Traditional (Composer), et al / Audio CD / Released 1997


Famous Spirituals

Simon Estes / Audio CD / Released 1998





Olupona, Jacob K. (Ed.) (1991). African Traditional Religions in Contemporary Society. New York: Paragon House. 

Bourdillon, M. (1990). Religion and Society: A Text for Africa. Harare: Mambo Press. 

Byaruhanga-Akiiki, A.B.T. (Ed.) (1995). African World Religion: Grassroots Perspectives. Gaberone: Printworld Ltd.

____________. (1982). Religion in Bunyoro: Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.

Fuchs, Stephen. (1975). Origin of Religion: Introduction into the History of Religion. Kerala: Pontifical Institute Publication No.19. 

Idowu, Bolaji.(1975). African Traditional Religion: a Definition. New York: Orbis. 

Idowu, B. E. (1994).Olodumare: God in Yoruba Religion. New York: Wazobia. 

Kenyatta, Jomo. (1978). Facing Mount Kenya: the traditional life of the Gikuyu. 1938; Reprint; Nairobi: Heinemann. 

King, Noel Q. (1970). Religions of Africa: A Pilgrimage Into Traditional Religion. New York: Harper &Row. 

King, Noel. (1986). African Cosmos: an introduction to religion in Africa. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Kirwen, Michael. (1987.)The Missionary and the Diviner. New York: Orbis Books. 

Mbiti, John S. (1970). Concepts of God in Africa. London: S.P.C.K., 

Mbiti, John S.  (1969). African Religions and Philosophy. London: Heinemann.

Mbiti, John. (1992). Introduction to African Religion. Second Revised Ed. Nairobi: East African Publishers. 

McVeigh, M.J.  (1974). God in Africa: Concepts of God in African traditional religion and Christianity. Cape Cod, Massachusetts: Cloud Stark.

Mugambi, J.N.K. (Ed.). (1990). Comparative Religion. Nairobi: University of Nairobi. 

p'Bitek, Okot. (1970). African Religions in Western Scholarship. Kampala: East African Literature Bureau.

Onwuejeogwu, M. Angulu. (1975). Social Anthropology in Africa: An Introduction. London: Heinemann.

Osabutey-Aguedze, Isaac D. (1990). The Principles Underlying African Religion and Philosophy. Nairobi: Mailu Publishing House. 

Parrinder, E. G. (1968). West African Religion: A study of the beliefs and practices of Akan, Ewe, Yoruba, Ibo and Kindred peoples.Third Ed. London: Epworth Press.

Ray, Benjamin C. (1976). African Religions: a symbol, ritual and community. Eaglewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc. 

Shorter, Aylward. (1974). East African Societies. London: Routledge & Kegan. 

__________. (1975). Prayer in the Religious Traditions of Africa. Nairobi: Oxford University Press.

Smith, Edwin W. (1966). African Ideas of God. London: Edinburgh Press.

Westerlund, David. (1985). African Religion in African Scholarship: a preliminary study of the religious and political background.Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International Stockholm. 

Williamson, S.G. (1965). Akan Religion and the Christian Faith. Accra: Ghana Universities press.